AAUW is US based organization which works for women empowerment.They published one report with State Policy Sex Trafficking Tool Kit . AAUW believes that global interdependence requires national and international policies against all forms of human trafficking. All states should have statutes in place that address protection of victims, prosecution, and prevention, including provisions that cover safe harbor, victim assistance, civil remedies, the ability to vacate convictions for survivors, and strict hotline posting requirements.
In this downloadable tool kit, AAUW and the National Council of Jewish Women outline three key state policy priorities — hotline posting requirements, safe harbor laws, and vacatur laws — to identify and combat sex trafficking. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with other state policy resources, such as the Polaris Project’s model state legislation, to guide branches and states in their legislative advocacy.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS: Sex Trafficking
What is sex trafficking?
The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 defines sex trafficking as the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purposes of a commercial sex act, in which the act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age. Transportation need not be a factor.
Is sex trafficking a problem here in the United States?
Yes. The FBI reports that from 2008-2010, 83% of sex trafficking victims found within the US were US citizens. Further, children and teens living on the streets are often involved in commercial sex activity.
What is the scale of the issue?
Due to a lack of data, the prevalence of sex trafficking in the United States is still unknown. We do know that sex trafficking happens in all 50 states. In 2015, the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) reported 4,136 cases of sex trafficking.
Is this a new problem?
No. This is a criminal industry that has operated in the shadows. However, growing public awareness and the increased availability of state and national hotlines has exposed the magnitude problem. The NHTRC experienced a 259% increase in calls from 2008-2012.
Who is at risk?
Anyone can become a victim, but certain populations are particularly vulnerable: undocumented migrants; runaway and homeless youth; survivors of sexual abuse; and marginalized groups and individuals. Victims have often run away or been “thrown-away” from abusive or troubled homes, including foster care placements. While there is not enough data to determine the average age of entry, a 2015 study by the NHTRC found that 44% of survivors surveyed estimated that they were 17 or younger when they first engaged in commercial sex. Traffickers specifically target these populations because they are vulnerable to recruitment tactics and methods of control.
How do traffickers recruit and control victims?
Traffickers — sometimes parents or other family members — use violence, threats, lies, false promises, debt bondage, drugs, or other forms of control and manipulation to keep victims in the sex industry. Further, traffickers often take their victims’ identity documents, including birth certificates, passports, and drivers’ licenses. Criminal networks transport victims and often provide them counterfeit identification to use in the event of arrest. If a victim is able to escape, they are often unable to access shelters and services or support themselves. As a result, survivors frequently return to their traffickers.
What services do survivors need?
Traffickers keep victims isolated from support and opportunity. For many survivors, it can be difficult to enter the workforce after their escape. Survivors need to build skills that will allow them to be self-supporting and independent. In the short term, survivor-centered, trauma-informed, culturally competent services are needed, including emergency housing, legal assistance, specialized health care, and counseling. In the long term, immigration relief, job training, and long term housing are crucial to helping survivors achieve lives free from exploitation. However, without addressing the systemic issues that allow trafficking to exist, including lack of education and opportunities, we will never fully eradicate the problem.
Who is penalized?
Punishment for traffickers and buyers is minimal. Buyers are rarely charged or convicted for solicitation or pandering, let alone statutory rape or child endangerment. Often, it is the sexually exploited child who ends up in jail for prostitution, despite not being of age to provide consent.